"For instance, on April 20, 1948, the 30 observers reporting
1314 A. H. SHAPLEY
through the American Association of Variable Star Observers
Solar Division gave numbers (10(7 +f) from 41 to 318; ad-
justed to the Wolf scale the range was 91 to 322.
Tell me what's so complicated to count raw number of sunspots
1. raw number
2. number of groups
3. number of sunspots per group
4. Any modified number of raw number
keeping the raw number of sunspots on top, since it matters over history,
since modifications and systems can be implement of any kind but raw number of sunspots is always fixed over centuries
Please refer to the solar bulletins published for the past 70 years or so: https://www.aavso.org/solar-bulletin
If you decide to get a telescope and contribute to the Solar Section, that would help, I think. https://www.aavso.org/solar
You make history
What is a source of raw number of sunspots time series for research study ?
The Raw number is the Wolf number, from that we take the Shapley formula to create the Ra index. We post those data (daily.csv) found on the solar web page (NOAA files). These data (time series) are use mostly by the LASP folks as the American Relative Sunspot Number:
the raw number of sunspots is counted daily by every sunspot observer.
The raw number of sunspots is the number of sunspots observed and can be verified against images of solar disc published by NOAA, NASA, ESA
and 10+ more and 100 solar observatories world-wide.
What you mean is called Wolf number, is solar activity index.
Rudolf Wolf counted 170 years ago genuine, real, raw number of sunspots as seen and published in his reports.
I need raw number of sunspots for research paper.
Raw number of sunspots is counted by every sunspot observer, daily, but not published.
R = 10g + f
The Wolf number, also known as the Zurich sunspot number, is a measurement of the daily solar activity. It is calculated using: R = 10g + f where g is the number of groups of sunspots and f is the number of individual spots.
I need f number, the number of individual spots, counted by every sunspot observer on a daily basis.
Observatory in Brussels publishes either "f" number of individual spots or Wolf number.
I can access "f" number of individual spots as counted by Rudolf Wolf in the past, from his reports,
but for my research paper I need time series of "f" number of individual spots.